小儿麻痹症的历史——从根除到重新出现

2022年9月


畸形或瘫痪的腿. 躯干萎缩,呼吸困难. For children left crippled with paralysis, a lifetime of disability and pain. This was the fate of thousands who survived the virus known today as polio. 这种疾病, 小儿麻痹症, 以前被称为“婴儿麻痹?,并影响了整个人类 历史.

When the APP下载官方版 (PAHO) was created in 1902, the highly contagious nature of polio would not be discovered by the medical community until 1905.  最终, with the development of the vaccine and tireless immunization efforts supported by PAHO, in 1994 the Region of the Americas became the first one in the world to be certified polio-free by the World Health Organization (WHO).

小儿麻痹症 is the short name for 小儿麻痹症, a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. 脊髓灰质炎病毒有三种野生类型, 类型1, 2, 和3, and only two countries where the wild poliovirus type 1 is still endemic: Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Recently the disease made headlines again when a case was detected in the United States in July 2022: an unvaccinated 20-year-old man was diagnosed with a type known as “vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV).” This is a strain related to the weakened live virus contained in the oral polio vaccine (OPV).

根据博士. 格洛丽亚雷伊, 一位脊髓灰质炎专家和APP下载官方版区域顾问, if the weakened live poliovirus can circulate in populations with low vaccination coverage, it can mutate and revert to a form that causes illness and paralysis. This highlights the importance of maintaining high vaccine coverage across all countries.

在未接种疫苗, the virus attacks the nervous system and can cause total paralysis in a matter of hours. 它通过人与人之间的接触传播, 通过鼻腔和口腔分泌物, 虽然更常见的是通过接触被污染的粪便. 

最初的症状是发烧, 乏力, 头疼, 呕吐, 颈部僵硬,四肢疼痛. One in 200 infections lead to irreversible paralysis (usually in the legs). Among those paralysed, 5 to 10 percent die when their breathing muscles become immobilized.

在20世纪50年代地区性脊髓灰质炎流行的高峰期, a machine known as an 'iron lung' was used to aid patients whose muscles had weakened. Although this machine alleviated breathing, it was no cure, and the race was on to find a vaccine.